# EXPERIMENT 2: Working with logarithmic scales

Sometimes measurements have a wide range of values. For example, a single human cell weighs about 10^{-16} kg while a whale weights about 10^5 kg, a difference of 21 orders of magnitude! It would difficult to display data of this range on the same graph without using logarithmic scales.

Logarithmic scales also expose the structure of the data as the independent variable becomes large. This experiment explores how use logarithmic scales to reveal scaling relationships.

The experiment consists of three parts: Part a explores the behavior of polynomials, Part b explores the behavior of exponential functions and Part c explores the behavior of logarithmic functions when plotted using axes that various combinations of linear and logarithmic scales.

**Part a: Scaling behavior of polynomials**

Predict the behavior when polynomials are plotted:

- both axes use linear scales
- y uses a logarithmic scale and x uses a linear scale
- x uses a logarithmic scale and y uses a linear scale
- both axes use logarithmic scales</li>

**Part b:Scaling behavior of exponential functions**

Predict the behavior when logarithmic are plotted:

- both axes use linear scales
- y uses a logarithmic scale and x uses a linear scale
- x uses a logarithmic scale and y uses a linear scale
- both axes use logarithmic scales

**Part a:Scaling behavior of logarithmic functions**

Predict the behavior when logarithmic functions are plotted:

- both axes use linear scales
- y uses a logarithmic scale and x uses a linear scale
- x uses a logarithmic scale and y uses a linear scale
- both axes use logarithmic scales

In all cases, describe the results qualitatively --- e.g., "the graph is linear" or the "graph is concave down". If the graph is linear, predict the slope and/or intercept in terms of the function.

**Why does the code for the logarithmic functions give a number of warnings?**

**What happens when lower order terms are included in the polynomial?**

## Contents

- Experiment 2a: Behavior of polynomials when plotted using different scales
- Create data for 3 polynomials for points in the interval [0.1, 10]
- Plot the polynomials on an ordinary scale
- Plot the polynomials on a semilog y scale
- Plot the polynomials on a semilog x scale
- plot the polynomials on a log-log scale
- Experiment 2b: Behavior of exponentials when plotted using different scales
- Create data for 3 exponential functions for points in the interval [0.1, 10]
- Plot the exponentials on an ordinary scale
- Plot the exponentials on a semilog y scale
- Plot the exponentials on a semilog x scale
- plot the exponentials on a log-log scale
- Experiment 2c: Behavior of logarithms when plotted using different scales
- Create data for 3 exponential functions for points in the interval [0.1, 10]
- Plot the logarithms on an ordinary scale
- Plot the logarithms on a semilog y scale
- Plot the logarithms on a semilog x scale
- plot the logarithms on a log-log scale

## Experiment 2a: Behavior of polynomials when plotted using different scales

## Create data for 3 polynomials for points in the interval [0.1, 10]

x = 0.1:0.1:10; y1 = polyval([1, 0], x); % Evaluate y = x; y2 = polyval([1, 0, 0], x); % Evaluate y = x^2; y3 = polyval([1, 0, 0, 0], x); % Evaluate y = x^3;

## Plot the polynomials on an ordinary scale

figure hold on plot(x, y1, '.k'); plot(x, y2, '.b'); plot(x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three polynomials on an ordinary scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = x', 'y = x^2', 'y = x^3'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Plot the polynomials on a semilog y scale

figure semilogy(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three polynomials on a semilog y scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = x', 'y = x^2', 'y = x^3'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Plot the polynomials on a semilog x scale

figure semilogx(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three polynomials on a semilog x scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = x', 'y = x^2', 'y = x^3'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## plot the polynomials on a log-log scale

figure loglog(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three polynomials on a loglog scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = x', 'y = x^2', 'y = x^3'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Experiment 2b: Behavior of exponentials when plotted using different scales

## Create data for 3 exponential functions for points in the interval [0.1, 10]

x = 0.1:0.1:10; y1 = exp(x); % Evaluate y = e^{x}; y2 = exp(2*x); % Evaluate y = e^{2x}; y3 = exp(3*x); % Evaluate y = e^{3x};

## Plot the exponentials on an ordinary scale

figure hold on plot(x, y1, '.k'); plot(x, y2, '.b'); plot(x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three exponentials on an ordinary scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = e^x', 'y = e^{2x}', 'y = e^{3x}'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Plot the exponentials on a semilog y scale

figure semilogy(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three exponentials on a semilog y scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = e^x', 'y = e^{2x}', 'y = e^{3x}'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Plot the exponentials on a semilog x scale

figure semilogx(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three exponentials on a semilog x scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = e^x', 'y = e^{2x}', 'y = e^{3x}'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## plot the exponentials on a log-log scale

figure loglog(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three exponentials on a loglog scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = e^x', 'y = e^{2x}', 'y = e^{3x}'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Experiment 2c: Behavior of logarithms when plotted using different scales

## Create data for 3 exponential functions for points in the interval [0.1, 10]

x = 0.1:0.1:10; y1 = log(x); % Evaluate y = log(x); y2 = log(2*x); % Evaluate y = log(2x); y3 = log(3*x); % Evaluate y = log(3x);

## Plot the logarithms on an ordinary scale

figure hold on plot(x, y1, '.k'); plot(x, y2, '.b'); plot(x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three logarithms on an ordinary scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = log(x)', 'y = log(2x)', 'y = log(3x)'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## Plot the logarithms on a semilog y scale

figure semilogy(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three logarithms on a semilog y scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = log(x)', 'y = log(2x)', 'y = log(3x)'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored

## Plot the logarithms on a semilog x scale

figure semilogx(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three logarithms on a semilog x scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = log(x)', 'y = log(2x)', 'y = log(3x)'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

## plot the logarithms on a log-log scale

figure loglog(x, y1, '.k', x, y2, '.b', x, y3, '.r'); title ('Three logarithms on a loglog scale') xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); legend({'y = log(x)', 'y = log(2x)', 'y = log(3x)'}, 'Location', 'Northwest')

Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored Warning: Negative data ignored

*This experiment was written by Kay A. Robbins of the University of Texas at San Antonio and last modified on 22-Sep-2010. Please contact krobbins@cs.utsa.edu with comments or suggestions.*