CS 1173 Computation for Scientists and Engineers
Error bars gallery

Effects of light condition on salivary melatonin concentration

bar chart showing salivary melatonin Ten Japanese junior high school students were divided into two groups, one exposed to bright light and the other to dim light during early evening hours. Salivary melatonin was measured at various times during the experiment.

Data from:
Tetsuo Harada (2004)
Effects of evening light conditions on salivary melatonin of Japanese junior high school students
Journal of Circadian Rhythms 2004, 2:4 doi:10.1186/1740-3391-2-4

Concentrations of the sunscreen agent BP-3 in the US population

Concentration of BP3 in urine BP-3 (Benzophenone-3) is a widely used component in sunscreens and cosmetics. BP-3 is also widely-used veterinary activities and has been detected in increasing amounts in the US water supply. Animal studies show that while toxicity is low, BP-3 alters the function of the liver, kidneys, and reproductive organs. The graph shows the concentration of BP-3 in urine in different ethnic groups and ages in the US. To obtain these results, researchers selected 2,517 samples at random from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 2003-2004. .

Data and graph from:
Antonia M. Calafat, Lee-Yang Wong, Xiaoyun Ye, John A. Reidy, and Larry L. Needham
Concentrations of the Sunscreen Agent Benzophenone-3 in Residents of the United States:
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004
Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 116, Number 7, July 2008

Melanic moth frequencies in Yorkshire

Graph of melanic moth frequencies from Cook et al. 2005 The percentage of melanic moths in Leeds, Manchester and Caldy for the period 1967 to 2003. The horizontal lines show where data have been grouped due to small sample size. The vertical lines give the standard error, where the standard deviation has been estimated from a model. The solid curves represent manual fitting of a model to the data. Inset: records for York 1990–2000 are superimposed on the Leeds curve.

Data and graph from:
L. M. Cook, S. L. Sutton, and T. J. Crawford (2005)
Melanic moth frequencies in Yorkshire, an Old English industrial hot spot
Journal of Heredity 2005 Sep-Oct;96(5):522-8, doi:10.1093/jhered/esi082

Cumulative cost of wakefulness and sleep deprivation

wakefulness graphs 48 healthy adults were randomly assigned to one of three sleep doses (4 hours, 6 hours or 8 hours per night) for 14 consecutive days. Performance was measured on various tasks and subjective sleepiness was also measured. Performance was also measured for total sleep deprivation.

Figure 1 of:
The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: Dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation.
H. P. A. Van Dongen, G. Maislin, J. M. Mullington, D. F. Dinges
Sleep 26(2):117-126, 2003.

Brain network properties for normal and schizophrenic subjects

brain network properties The graphs summarize brain functional network properties as a function of frequency band for healthy volunteers (blue) and people with schizophrenia (red): average mutual information (A), efficiency (B), cost (C), and cost efficiency (D). Differences between groups significant at P < 0.05 uncorrected are identified by an asterisk. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals. For specific t values and P values, see Table S1. The graphs are based on magnetoencephalography data from 29 healthy volunteers and 28 people with schizophrenia during a work-memory task.

Figure 2 of:
Cognitive fitness of cost-efficient brain functional networks
Bassetta, D.S. Bullmore, E.T., Meyer-Lindenberge, A., Apuda, J.A., Weinberger, D.R., Coppola, R.
PNAS 2009 106:11747-11752